Third SUMMIT of Christian and Muslim Religious Leaders
2-4 December 2014, Rome, Italy
The 2014 Summit represents the third in a series of encounters between Christian and Muslim Religious Leaders and experts coming from both Eastern and Western nations. His Eminence Jean-Louis Cardinal Tauran, President of the Pontifical Council for Inter-religious Dialogue, is hosting the event. This Council is “the central office of the Catholic Church for the promotion of interreligious dialogue” and has the mandate, inter alia, “to promote mutual understanding, respect and collaboration between Catholics and the followers of others religious traditions.” The event will be convened on 2-4 December 2014, in Rome, Italy.
The Theme chosen for the event is: “Christians and Muslims: Believers Living in Society”
The following sub-themes will be developed by the four Principals and discussed by the participants:
1. What are the strengths in our religious traditions as we strive to prevent conflict in society by the acceptance of “the other”?
Initial Reflection on this Question based on Respective Religious Traditions:
Religious Teaching of many traditions is replete with a recognition that prevention of conflict in society by acceptance of the “other” is rooted in the dignity with which the Almighty One has endowed each and every person.
Consequently, religious leaders urge their respective followers to put these teachings into action in the following manner: “…with regard to the constitutive principles of the international community… relations among peoples and political communities [are required to] be justly regulated according to the principles of reason, equity, law and negotiation, excluding recourse to violence and war, as well as to forms of discrimination, intimidation and deceit.”
The Christian tradition professes: “The centrality of the human person and the natural inclination of persons and peoples to establish relationships among themselves are the fundamental elements for building a true international community, the ordering of which must aim at guaranteeing the effective universal common good… The coexistence among nations is based on the same values that should guide relations among human beings: truth, justice, active solidarity and freedom.”
An Anglican report on inter-faith relations, Generous Love: the truth of the Gospel and the call to dialogue makes the following affirmation:
“We seek to mirror the Father’s generous love. The God who has created our world is generous in grace and rejoices in diversity – ‘O Lord, how manifold are your works! In wisdom you have made them all!’ He has created all men and women in his image, and he wishes all to enjoy that fullness of life in his presence, which we know as salvation. God cares for each person with a parental love; called to be perfect as our Father is perfect, we know that we must show that same love and respect to all.”
In the Christian Scriptures, Jesus is quoted as assuring his disciples: “Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid.”
Coexistence is integral to Islam since the ethics and laws of Islam promote, by its own humanitarian precepts, the very existence of ethnic, cultural and religious diversity, including the following:
“And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed -all of them entirely. Then, [O Muhammad], would you compel the people in order that they become believers?” (Yunis 99)
Consistent with the recognition of the heterogeneity of the religious human experience, the Muslim is enjoined to display compassionate understanding”… and dispute with them in the way (which is) fairest.” (El Nahel, 125) For the Quran unequivocally reiterates that to each is his own faith and his own religion (cf. El Kafirun 6).
By the same token God almighty admonishes the believers against the Evil one who seeks to use diversity as means of provoking discord between mankind and to engage in meaningful dialogue based on tolerant understanding. “And tell My servants to say that which is best. Indeed, Satan induces [dissension] among them. Indeed Satan is ever, to mankind, a clear enemy.” (Al Isra, 53)
Also, in the Muslim tradition, the following counsels have been recalled: “‘Invite all to the way of your Lord with wisdom, gentle words and the most gracious kind of argumentation”. (12-125).’ The conditions of conversation in the Quran include kindness, meaningfulness, being accurate, beneficial, truthful, flexible, friendly, easy and eloquent. The culture of sabb or insulting, abusing, biting with tongue has no place in Islam. The Quran also tells us, ‘Pursue not that of which you have no knowledge, for every act of hearing, or of seeing or of feeling in the heart will be enquired into on the Day of Reckoning’ (17-36).’”
Other reflections from the Islamic tradition include: God created human beings to be diverse.’ Thus God says: O people, fear your Lord, Who created you of a single soul, and from it created its mate, and from the pair of them scattered many men and women…. (Al-Nisa, 4:1) ‘Human beings are diverse in their races, languages, cultures and religions.’ Thus God says: And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the differences of your tongues and your colours. Surely in that there are signs for people who meditate. (Al-Rum, 30:22) ‘Religious diversity is not offensive to God. On the contrary, it is willed by Him.’
God says: Had your Lord willed, He would have made mankind one community, but they continue to differ, / except those on whom your Lord has mercy; and that is why He created them…. (Hud, 11: 118-119)
Thus God created human beings with their differences for His Mercy. ‘Moreover, having differences does not mean that people cannot socially live together in peace and friendship.’ God says to Muslims: O you who believe, do not take Jews and Christians as patrons; they are patrons of each other. Whoever amongst you takes them as patrons, he is one of them…. (Al-Ma’idah, 5:51)
Through the United Nations General Assembly, the international community recognized “the commitment of all religions to peace and the need for voices of moderation in order to build a more secure and peaceful world” and reaffirmed “that mutual understanding and interreligious dialogue constitute important dimensions of the dialogue among civilizations and of the culture of peace.” It also recognized “the importance of respect and understanding for religious and cultural diversity throughout the world, of choosing negotiations over confrontation and of working together and not against each other.”
2. What challenges do we encounter in our religious traditions as we strive to prevent conflict in society by the acceptance of “the other”?
Initial Reflection on this Question based on Respective Religious Traditions: Regrettably, the strength of our religious teachings and traditions has not always been fully understood and appreciated. Human weakness, pride, prejudice often have led to rejection of others who do not share respective religious traditions or who differ, ethnically, politically or otherwise, from the mainstream populations in some countries or even in local communities and families.
It might be said, as well, that many challenges come not from religious teachings per se, but rather from the misunderstanding or misinterpretation of such teachings: “Muslims and Christians take their religious duties seriously, but they have misconceptions of the tenets and practices of other faiths. In addition, some of the teachers, Imams, and pastors have limited knowledge of their own religions and are quite ignorant of the other religions. Sadly, some of these religious leaders discourage members of their congregations from learning about other faiths.”
In many cases, religious leadership has clearly rejected such prejudiced thinking and action: “Despite the widespread aspiration to build an authentic international community, the unity of the human family is not yet becoming a reality. This is due to obstacles originating in materialistic and nationalistic ideologies that contradict the values of the person integrally considered in all his various dimensions, material and spiritual, individual and community. In particular, any theory or form whatsoever of racism and racial discrimination is morally unacceptable.”
3. How can our respective religious traditions work effectively with governments and civil society to break down barriers and misunderstandings of “the other” in our efforts to prevent conflict in society?
Initial Reflection on this Question based on Respective Religious Traditions: There has been a growing acknowledgement in religious teaching that “Human interdependence is increasing and gradually spreading throughout the world. The unity of the human family, embracing people who enjoy equal natural dignity, implies a universal common good. This good calls for an organization of the community of nations able to “provide for the different needs of men …”
This is not totally new teaching but goes back to ancient sources: “Do not live entirely isolated, having retreated into yourselves, as if you were already justified, but gather instead to seek the common good together.”
Christians further believe that the work of the Holy Spirit is not just about ‘inwardness’ but provides the operative conditions for flourishing social life. Anglicanism has sought the formation of social contexts in which pressures towards liberty and towards order are both made to subserve a positive vision of human community. Refusing to prioritise either inner conscience or external authority alone in the quest for human flourishing, Anglicans have been determined to minister to whole communities, to find ways of enabling people of robustly differing convictions to live together so that a public good may be formed. This understanding of the Spirit as the source of ground rules for productive social life is transferable to new situations of religious plurality.
In the Muslim tradition, peace necessarily means justice, liberty, mutual respect and honour for all citizens. Peace and justice are inseparable.’ Indeed, God repeatedly enjoins justice in the Quran:
O you who believe, be upright in justice; witnesses for God, even though it be against yourselves; or parents and kinsmen, whether the person be rich or poor…. (Al-Nisa, 4:135) …. and if you judge, then judge justly between them; God loves the just. (Al-Ma’idah, 5:42) … Say, ‘God does not enjoin indecency. Do you say concerning God that which you do not know?’ / Say: ‘My Lord enjoins justice. (Al-‘Araf, 7:2829)
Indeed God enjoins justice and virtue and giving to kinsfolk, and He forbids lewdness, and abomination, and aggression: He admonishes you so that you might remember. (Al-Nahl, 16:90)
Thus justice is the basis of legal judgment in Islam. Moreover, ensuring justice, liberty, mutual respect and honour does not depend on whether we like those people or not. It is guaranteed to all people. God says: O you who believe, be upright before God, witnesses in equity. Let not hatred of a people cause you not to be just; be just, that is nearer to God-fearing. And fear God; surely God is aware of what you do. (Al-Ma’idah, 5:8)
‘Thus all citizens are equal before the law.’ This is true for Islamic Law (Shari‘ah), and must be true for all other kinds of law that Muslims live under. God says: Verily, God commands you to restore trusts and that when you judge between people you judge with justice. God’s instructions to you are excellent. God hears and sees everything. (Al-Nisa, 4:58)
Islam confirms the common humanity and the common bases of the religious experience in its various manifestations, which the Quran reiterates throughout, including as follows:
O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted. (al-Hujurat, 13)
Thus Muslim theology enjoins the acceptance of the other as a full recognition of the respective validity of the diversity of the religious experiences and the use of rational dialogue to communicate the respective vision of the heterogeneous refractions of God. The fundamental avowal of divine interventions throughout human history entails respect, mutual recognition, valuation for the varied cross cultural of religious experiences of God in His diverse expression in various societies, ethnicities and beliefs that are other.
Not all energy is creative, and not every powerful spirit is to be aligned with the Holy Spirit of God. Some forms of religious belief can have a dark, a repressive, a divisive, even a violent side. However inadequate the word ‘fundamentalism’ is as a term applied to different phenomena in different faith traditions, there is abroad in all communities a spirit of defamation of ‘the other’, of the hardening of differences into divisions, of the suppression of variety, of the disempowerment of the vulnerable.
There is abuse of religion for self-advancement, for the promotion of sectional interests, for the justification of comfortable lifestyles and of the exploitation of others. Partly as a result of such distortions, the appeal of a militant secularism is growing in many places.
Some aspects of the Muslim theological paradigm present serious challenges to recognizing the truth value in other religious experiences. Extremist exegesis denies the divine injunctions of tolerant recognition of other ethnic, religious, racial communities by undermining Jewish and Christian theology and religious practices, A key example is the polemic verse in el Fatihah, the first chapter of the Quran, in which the word “accursed” and “those who have strayed from faith” are commonly interpreted as denoting alternately the Jews and Christians. In contradiction to the spirit of the Quran, Muslim hermeneutics claim truth value only in the revealed word of Allah. It is further believed by some Muslims that the holy scriptures of the Jews and the Christians, although recognized as the words of God, have been distorted with interpolated and additional texts and selective deletions. The exegesis of these texts by Jewish and Christian theologians, are held to be at variance with Muslim precepts and consequently considered as straying from the word of God.
To address such distortions and misinterpretations of religious belief and practice, the Parliament of World Religions declared: “We affirm that a common set of core values is found in the teachings of the religions, and that these form the basis of a global ethic. We affirm that this truth is already known, but yet to be lived in heart and action We must strive for ajust social and economic order, in which every one has an equal chance to reach full potential as a human being. We must speak and act truthfully and with compassion, dealing fairly with all, and avoiding prejudice and hatred. We must not steal. We must move beyond the dominance of greed for power, prestige, money, and consumption to make ajust and peaceful world.”
4. By working together, how can we educate to shape a culture of peace and harmony through our respective religious traditions?
Initial Reflection on this Question based on Respective Religious Traditions:
Religious Teachers point out that promotion of a culture of peace and harmony is a duty shared by all: “Peace is built up day after day in the pursuit of an order willed by God and can flourish only when all recognize that everyone is responsible for promoting it.”
They identify values formation as a first step in this transformative process: “To prevent conflicts and violence, it is absolutely necessary that peace begin to take root as a value rooted deep within the heart of every person. In this way it can spread to families and to the different associations within society until the whole of the political community is involved.”
This Teaching brings hope that, “[i]n a climate permeated with harmony and respect for justice, an authentic culture of peace can grow and can even pervade the entire international community… Such an ideal of peace cannot be obtained on earth unless the welfare of man is safeguarded and people freely and trustingly share with one another the riches of their minds and their talents.”
Religious leaders could inspire the promotion of a culture of peace and harmony by themselves engaging in dialogue that is marked by a spirit of mutual encounter, respect, trust, and honest, open discussion of the values that unite them and the perspectives and beliefs on which they differ. Thus it has been observed: “…dialogue alone allows us to overcome fear, because it allows each one to experience the discovery of the other and to bring about a meeting, and this meeting is precisely what the interreligious dialogue is about in reality.”
This happens “because it is not two religions that meet, but rather men and women that the vicissitudes of life, the circumstances, favorable or unfavorable, have made companions in humanity.” This requires efforts “an effort, on both sides, to know the religious traditions of the other, to acknowledge what separates us and what brings us close and to collaborate for the common good.” It calls for “interior liberty that gives place to an attitude full of respect for the other: to be able to be silent so as to listen to the other, to give him the opportunity to express himself with all freedom, and not hide or sweeten one’s own spiritual identity.” It must be recognized that this is no easy task, but “once trust is established, both sides will be able to examine freely what separates us and what unites us.”
In the Muslim faith tradition, it is recognized that peace between religions requires dialogue’. God says:
And do not dispute with the People of the Scripture except in the most courteous way, except [in the case of] those of them who have done wrong, and say: ‘We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you our God and your God is One [and the same], and to Him we submit’. (Al-‘Ankabut, 29:46)
‘Dialogue should lead to working together on common challenges, not merely in the sphere of interfaith peace-building, but also in confronting common problems and challenges, such as poverty, unemployment, food production, health challenges and catastrophe relief.’ God says:
… To every one of you, We have appointed a divine law and a way. If God had willed, He would have made you one community, but that He may try you in what He has given to you. So vie with one another in good works; to God you shall all return, and He will then inform you of that in which you differed. (Al-Ma’idah, 5:48)
‘Working together should lead to trust. Trust should lead to friendship, God willing.’ God says:
… You will truly find the nearest of them in love to those who believe to be those who say ‘Verily, we are Christians’; that because some of them are priests and monks, and because they are not disdainful. (Al-Ma’idah, 5:82)
Promoting a culture of tolerant co-existence requires the joint cooperation between the diverse civil society institutions on all levels and governmental support in which the media plays a seminal role in advancing the dialogue. Television, newspapers, and radio can provide the podiums to disseminate the values and ethics of tolerance and highlight the danger of apathetic indifference to the emerging political groups and intolerant ideologies. The implementation of co-existence is accompanied by informed knowledge, openness, communication and free exchange of thought and belief. It is not simply an ethical moral duty but a political legal duty too leading to a society in which peace and stability reign leaving no room for hatred or terrorism.
Practical models of such dialogue have been developed on global, national, and local levels. In 2005, one such model was initiated in the United Kingdom and is called the Christian-Muslim Forum. Its defined objectives reflect the careful intention and attention given to shaping a culture of peace and harmony:
• To weave a web of open, honest and committed personal relationships between Christians and Muslims;
• To encourage shared reflection on the spiritual, theological, scholarly, ethical and practical values of the two traditions in order to offer resources for citizenship in our society;
• To build a shared public platform to strengthen Christians and Muslims working together for the common good in partnership with others;
• To develop channels of communication to help Christians and Muslims together to respond to events which test our relationship.
Background and Goals of Previous Summits between and among Christian and Muslim Religious Leaders
As with the First Summit, held at National Cathedral, in Washington, DC, USA, during March of 2010, and the Second Summit, held in Beirut, Lebanon, during June 2012, it is hoped that this Third Summit will result in a jointly agreed upon Plan of Action to achieve specific results in conformity with the above-mentioned. It also is hoped that, when the four Principals reconvene, tangible progress toward increased peace and reconciliation between and among Christians and Muslims can be noted.
The overall goals for these meetings have included promotion of understanding and reconciliation between and among their respective faith traditions, and encouragement of religious leaders to undertake effective advocacy for reconciliation and peace efforts, in the hope of achieving a positive impact on relationships among people of faith, governments, and civil society worldwide. These initiatives have been undertaken to engage leaders across faiths and nations in the search for what Christians call “the Peace of God which surpasses all understanding” (Epistle of Paul to the Philippians 4:7) and what the Qur’an teaches: “O ye who believe! Enter into Peace whole-heartedly.” (Surah 2:208)
Building on a Strong Foundation: Christian and Muslim Leaders Summit held at National Cathedral, Washington, DC, USA, 1-3 March 2010
Inspired by shared beliefs and in a spirit of reconciliation, the Summit leaders and participants committed themselves to appeal to government and community leaders to promote reconciliation and peace efforts worldwide. They did so in a world threatened by the global economic crisis and inequitable distribution of resources, by humanitarian crises caused by natural disasters, food, water, and energy shortages, and climate change. New and enduring political and religious conflicts were increasing violence at every level. In particular, they recalled that the unresolved conflict in the Holy Land is the cause of permanent instability and dramatic violence imposed on persons and peoples of an entire region of the world. They acknowledged that the worship of God who demands serious moral purpose is at the very core of Christianity and Islam; therefore, they re-affirmed that religious leaders must cooperatively work with each other and the political leaders in their respective countries in response to these crises.
The Principal Leaders of the Summit were four distinguished religious leaders of Sunni and Shi‘a Islam and Anglican/Episcopal and Roman Catholic faith traditions.
-Ayatollah Doctor Ahmad Iravani, President of the Centre for the Study of Islam and the Middle East; Research Scholar, Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.
-His Eminence Ahmed Muhammad Ahmed el-Tayeb, President of al-Azhar University, Cairo
-His Eminence Jean-Louis Cardinal Tauran, President of the Pontifical Council for Inter-religious Dialogue, The Vatican
-The Right Reverend John Bryson Chane, Episcopal Bishop of Washington, Diocese of Washington
They brought a deep commitment and long-standing experience in interfaith initiatives seeking to build understanding, peace, and reconciliation among all peoples of faith, governments, and civil society. Each of the Principals invited other experts from their respective traditions to join them in this inter-faith reflection and dialogue.
The Sacred Books of their respective faith traditions were acknowledged as the foundation of these deliberations.
The Summit participants expressed a firm conviction that believers must become active agents of concrete change, making the world a better place for all. Thus they developed the following Plan of Action and offered their personal commitment to promote it.
Principles for the March 2010 Plan of Action
1. We believe in one God, the Creator of the Universe and Author of life.
2. Human life is sacred, and all persons are created with equal dignity and rights.
3. All believers have a right to freely claim their unique religious identity and convictions and to expect that their texts, practices, symbols, and places considered sacred be respected. To dismiss or demean another faith tradition, to impose a system of belief on others, or to proselytize them to change their beliefs, is a violation of the sacred dignity of the human person.
4. Justice and equity are essential to peacemaking among individuals, families, communities, and nations.
5. Global engagement should be guided by the values of justice, mutual responsibility, and compassion for human flourishing.
6. Religion and faith can play a significant role in healing divisions and in shaping a just and inclusive society.
7. Commitment to regular, ongoing dialogue is essential to overcome religious intolerance, terrorism, and violence.
Advancing on the Journey: Summit held at Al Amin Mosque in Beirut, Lebanon, 18-20 June 2012
This was the second of four planned interfaith dialogues between Christian and Muslim Leaders seeking to promote reconciliation and peace in the world.
Four principal leaders, listed below, were joined by delegations from their respective faith traditions, representing Sunni, Shi‘a, Anglican/Episcopalian, and Catholic leadership:
-S.E. Sheikh Malek Shaar, Mufti of North Lebanon & Tripoli and host of the Beirut Summit
-Ayatollah Mohammad-Ali Taskhiri, Director, Islamic Culture and Relations Organization, Tehran, Iran
-His Eminence Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran, President, Pontifical Council for Inter-Religious Dialogue, Vatican
-The Right Reverend John Bryson Chane, Eighth Bishop of Washington, D.C., and Senior Advisor for Interfaith Relations, Washington National Cathedral
This Second Summit included three days of intensive encounters and meetings among participants from these various faith traditions and culminated in a Plan of Action presented at a public forum. Topics at the Second Summit included the plight of religious minorities and the positive roles that religious leaders from Christian and Muslim traditions can take in protecting the safety and rights of these minorities in their respective countries. At a time when minority religious groups, particularly in the Middle East, are facing enormous challenges to the safe practice of their faith, the Christian and Muslim Leaders Summit presented a unique opportunity for faith leaders to share hospitality and rededicate themselves to the protection of all people of faith.
Theme for the Second Summit was:
“Muslims and Christians Building Justice and Peace Together in a Violent, Changing World”
Goal of the Second Summit:
Issue a call, to and from our respective religious communities, and to governments and civil society as a whole, to take effective and just actions in response to discrimination, marginalization, and violence against religious communities, whether or not they might be a majority or minority population.
As had been declared at the First Summit in Washington, DC, the Principals and Experts at the Second Summit strongly reaffirmed their belief that the resolution, through justice for all, of the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians is an essential foundation to build justice and peace, not only for this region, but also for the world.
Plan of Action from Second Summit:
1. The Christian and Muslim Summit II Principals, and their respective Delegations, consider that peace will not be achieved unless justice prevails in the world and until all peoples enjoy their full rights, including the right to have their own States and the right of self-determination. We are especially mindful of the violence suffered by the Palestinian people for more than sixty years. We also recall the international binding instruments, inter alia the relevant United Nations resolutions in this regard and call for their full implementation. We reiterate our full rejection of all attempts to alter the identity of the city of Jerusalem and its Holy Places.
2. We will exert all efforts in order to halt the emigration of Christians from the countries of the Middle East as we firmly believe that all Arab Christians and should enjoy common citizenship on this earth while strongly noting that such emigration is due to many factors, not just for religious reasons.
3. We will seek to reinforce the pillars of justice and peace in a violent and changing world through education, which always will stress the importance of common religious teachings that guarantee the dignity and rights of others and so establish authentic plurality and diversity.
4. We will promote sustainable dialogue with others, namely the followers of religious teachings, since dialogue is the language of humanity that brings people closer to each other and lifts all imaginary barriers between them. This would also allow people to meet and interact in harmony in order to promote the service of humanity as honored by all religions.
5. We will safeguard the freedom of religion in words, as in action, since freedoms are sacred and the freedom of conviction is a priority and is enshrined in all religious teachings.
6. We hereby recognize with sorrow that, at various times, despite their teachings, some people have been involved in the killing and oppression of people and denial of their freedoms. This includes intellectual violence. Thus we ask for the language of dialogue and negotiations to prevail over the language of weapons.
7. We condemn the massacres and bloodshed happening in the Arabic country of Syria and ask the international community to end such acts immediately and to grant the Syrian people their rights to live in dignity and self-determination.
8. We will make every effort to include women in these dialogues. Women must play a key role in peace-building at all levels of society, since they often bear the greatest burden of violence, poverty, discrimination, marginalization, inequity, and exclusion.
9. We call upon all media outlets to fulfill their responsibility to correctly portray religions as they promote the values of justice, peace, compassion, and building inclusive societies.
10. In conclusion, the Principals and their respective Delegations at the Christian and Muslim Leaders Summit II declare their commitment to meet on a periodic basis in order to evaluate the progress of implementing the actions proposed in this plan. We will discuss the issue of convening a third Summit in Rome or Teheran and will address the requirement to obtain the necessary funding for that Summit.
 Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, #433, http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/justpeace/documents/rc_pc_justpeace_doc_200 60526_compendio-dott-soc_en.html.
 Generous Love, Anglican Communion Office, 2008 p. 1.
 John 14:27.
 Imam Mohammad Ali Elahi, Head of the House of Wisdom, Dearborn Heights, Michigan, USA, presentation at ISNA convention in Washington DC 4th of July 2009 about Shia-Sunni Unity.
 Peace and Justice between Muslims and Christians today.
 United Nations General Assembly, 68th session, Agenda item 15, “Promotion of interreligious and intercultural dialogue, understanding and cooperation for peace,” A68/L.30, 10 December 2013.
 United Nations General Assembly, 68th session, Agenda item 15, 10 December 2013, “Follow-up to the Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace,” A/68/L.28.
 “The Relationship between Christians and Muslims: Experiences from Northern Nigeria,” The Right Reverend Josiah Idowu-Fearon, http://www.nationalcathedral.org/learn/summit2010/article_Idowu-Fearon.shtml.
 Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, op.cit., #433.
 Catechism of the Catholic Church, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1994, http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P6K.HTM , #1911.
 Epistola Barnabae, 4,10, as quoted in Catechism of the Catholic Church, #1905.
 Generous Love.
 Peace and Justice between Muslims and Christians today.
 Generous Love p. 12
 Declaration Toward a Global Ethic, Parliament of the World’s Religions, Chicago, USA, 4 September 1993, http://www.weltethos.org/1-pdf/10-stiftung/declaration/declaration_english.pdf
 Catechism of the Catholic Church, #495.
 “Cardinal Tauran: “We Shouldn’t Fear Islam: Says Interreligious Dialogue Can Deepen Faith,” article on Address given by Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran, at a Conference on “Christianity, Islam, and Modernity,” Granada, Spain, FEB. 18, 2010, www.Zenit.org.
 Peace and Justice between Muslims and Christians today.
 For the Common Good: the Church of England, Christian-Muslim relations and A Common Word, Dr. Clare Amos, formerly of the Anglican Communion Office, London, http://www.nationalcathedral.org/learn/summit2010/article_Amos1.shtml
 The First Summit also included the presence of Jewish Observers.