If there can be no peace between Christians and Muslims, then there can be no peace in the Middle East or for that matter, no opportunity for peace throughout the world!(1)
According to a Pew religious Poll published in 2010, 8 in 10 people of the world’s total population identified with a religious group.(2) There are approximately 1.6 billion who profess to be Muslim and 2 billion professing to be Christian. Both of these monotheistic religions are conversional by their nature and are currently experiencing a rapid growth of converts in Africa, Asia proper, the Middle East, Central and South America as well as China. Professor Philip Jenkins has written that the real challenge is whether the core teachings of Christianity and Islam can be preserved given that new converts to both faith traditions are proving to be far more conservative in interpreting their respective Holy Texts. Such a shift away from commonly held core theological teachings to more elementary, simplified and inerrant understandings of scriptures can create an environment where radical theological interpretation and practice can raise their ugly heads and become the rule rather than the exception.(3)
In this second millennium of the 21st Century we are living beyond the parameters of Modernity and living in a Post Modern age. Modernity is closely linked to western values such as commerce, trade, industrial and scientific growth and development, secularism and where individuality is embraced as a primary value. The challenging result of this 21st Century shift is the loss of commonly shared values and morality. This too often leads to nihilism and contributes to lawlessness and anarchy. Today there is growing concern whether Christianity and Islam will be able to join together as forces for good in challenging this dangerous shift now occurring in the Middle East as well as within the global community.
The strengths of Christianity and Islam in relationship are centered on very early connecting points established prior to the formal writing of the Qur’an. Before the prophet Muhammad, Christians and Jews who were Arab speakers were living in Arabia. Scholars agree that Christian communities present from the 5th through 7th century were the Nestorians, Jacobites and Melkites. Among these groups Syriac or Christian Palestinian Aramaic were spoken as well as Arabic. The contents of the Qur’an in Arabic possesses a high degree of knowledge and awareness of the oral and written traditions of Christian scriptures. As Professor Sydney H. Griffith writes; “the Qur’an assumes that its audience had a fairly detailed knowledge of these matters. So the question is, how did they acquire it? The answer seems to be that by the time of the Qur’an, knowledge of the Christian Bible, the Christian creed, and the Christian liturgy had already spread orally among Arabs, presumably transmitted first from those Arabs living on the Arab periphery who were in more immediate contact with those Syriac and Ge’ez- speaking Christians whose faith and practice the Qur’an echoes.”(4)
The Bible in Arabic, from its oral beginnings in pre-Islamic times up to the production and wide circulation of translations from the 9th-13th centuries functioned as an important interreligious catalyst in early Islamic times”.(5) New scholarship demonstrates that the Bible orally shared by Jews and Christians from the first third of the 7th century was the scripture that the Qur’an recalls in narratives of the patriarchs and prophets. “The Bible had become in large part the Qur’an’s subtext”.6)
The early connections between Christianity and Islam through the oral and written traditions of the Bible in its many linguistic forms are congruent and significant in their impact on the oral and written Qur’an. Two of the most well-known shared high theological concepts are, loving and worshipping the One God and loving neighbor or “the other”.(7) Both Christianity and Islam embrace and proclaim the centrality of justice and peace as taught by both Jesus and the Prophet Muhammad. The prophet said; “None of you has faith until you love your neighbor what you love for yourself”(8) Jesus said; “the Lord our God, the Lord is one; you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength. You shall love your neighbor as yourself. There is no other commandment greater than these”(9) In Islam submission to the one God is critical in the relationship between believer and creator. The same understanding of submission is existent in Christianity but articulated in a different linguistic form; loving God with the believer’s whole heart, soul and mind functions as the believer’s total submission to God.
How we deal with theological points of divergence and disagreement between Christianity and Islam are issues that must be addressed. Too often Christians are referred to as infidels and non-believers by Muslims who seem to completely misconstrue the symbiosis existing between both monotheistic religions. Likewise Christians too often generalize and refer to the violent behavior of Muslims as jihadist’s behavior. Both generalizations are problematic and have led to reactive and often violent responses against both religions by the uninformed and by terrorists who hide behind the mask of religion. Jonathan Swift’s words are applicable here when he said we have “just enough religion to make us hate one another but not enough to make us love one another”.
An important point of divergence between Christianity and Islam is one that is now currently surfacing by work of Biblical scholars who have studied both the formation of the Bible and Qur’an from their early oral traditions to their written and printed forms. This scholarly work has emerged in the early 21st century by those who have intensely studied the Bible in its early Arabic forms and the influences of the Biblical oral and written tradition on the compilation and publishing of the Qur’an in the second half of the seventh century. The Qur’an was the first real Arabic book.(10)
Studies by Biblical Professor Sidney H. Griffith of Princeton University have raised questions about the term Abrahamic in referring to the relationship between Christianity and Islam. As this scholarly work continues to press forward in the 21st century, there will be challenges to what is meant by the relationships between Christianity and Islam with the first monotheist and Prophet Abraham. The prophet Abraham is referred to some 73 times in the Qur’an. Abraham is for Muslims Haleem meaning “forbearing” and Awwah meaning in prayer and spiritually clean.
When in interreligious dialogue involving Jews, Christians and Muslims the use of “the Abrahamic Religions” as a unifying point is incorrect. There is a need to understand the theological diversity of how each religion views Abraham. Such a lack of attention to this little detail can be a ‘gloss over” for deeper dialogue. All three religions refer to Abraham as God’s friend: Isaiah 41:8, James 2:23 and IV an-Nisa 125 Khalil in the Qur’an. Judaism, Christianity and Islam however see Abraham in a different theological context. Abraham in Jewish life is a paradigm. In Christianity, Abraham is presented as the father of us all, by faith and not by observance of the law. Already there is a division between Judaism and Christianity. In Eusebius of Caesarea’s Ecclesiastical History 260-340 C.E. Abraham is thought as a Christian. In the late Antique and Medieval Christian review, Abraham is a pre-Jewish harbinger of Christianity and a proto Christian. In Islam and within the Qur’an, Abraham is neither Jew nor Christian, but a hanif and a Muslim. The phrase religion of Abraham came into use in Arabic as a polemically charged synonym for Islam in contradiction to Judaism and Christianity. Today scholars in the West have ignored these contradictions and have morphed Judaism, Christianity and Islam, as Abrahamic religions. Such a congruence does not exist. Given this emerging Biblical scholarship, is it proper to use the term “Abrahamic” in our interreligious engagements with the three monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam? This is a question that is becoming more of a talking point with 21st century theologians. And once it becomes more of a mainstream issue within scholarly circles will it possibly become a “third rail” short-circuiting interreligious dialogue? I raise this issue because the use of Abrahamic can still be a point of congruence even though there are theological points of divergence and emerging disagreement. Abraham was the first monotheist and is considered by Judaism, Christianity and Islam to be a shared prophet who was chosen by God to be a spokesperson for the worshipping of the one God. To see Abraham as a unifier within diversity is important for interreligious work to move forward so long as all three religions are clear about their points of divergence. Abraham is a prophet shared by the three faiths but cannot be owned as the exclusive property of any. The same can be true in addressing the role of Jesus in Christianity and Muhammad in Islam. For Christians, Jesus is the Son of God, the Messiah and the incarnate presence of God on earth. Muslims see Jesus as one of the three great prophets included in the Bible and Qur’an.
Likewise, how do Christians and Muslims, engaged in the intense and hugely important work of Interreligious dialogue and then action beyond the words and concepts shared. How can such dialogue square with the significant differences that define these two monotheistic religions? Take for instance the Christian kerygmatic teaching of who Jesus is in New Testament. Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary and was divinely conceived. He is the son of God, lived and then crucified, died and was buried. On the third day he arose from the dead and ascended in heaven where he now sits at the right hand of God. And will come again with glory to judge the living and the dead and whose kingdom shall have no end.
In Islam, Jesus is viewed as a prophet and messenger from God who was sent to the Children of Israel bringing to them a new scripture which was the Gospel. Jesus place in Islam is significant. He appears 93 times in the Qur’an. He was born of the Virgin Mary, a sign of God’s miracle. God gave Jesus the gift of performing miracles. He was not crucified and killed but in his time on earth was eventually raised by God to be with God. This is seen in the reading of the 19th Sura of the Qur’an, verses 15-33. As a prophet in Islam, Jesus is also claimed to be a Muslim. And as a prophet Jesus was submissive to God’s will and command. Islam rejects the Christian concept of the Trinity and that Jesus was the incarnate son of God. God cannot be associated with three persons, Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
Muslims view the Prophet Muhammad as the last messenger and prophet from God, following Jesus. Muhammad is believed to have restored the monotheistic faith as it was presented by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets. Muhammad is the final prophet in the line of the great prophets who was chosen by God to correct and codify the teachings of the previous prophets
The Virgin Mary is held by Muslims to be a righteous woman. Interestingly she is mentioned more times in the Qur’an than she is in the entire New Testament and is the only woman mentioned in the Qur’an. As a virgin, Mary conceived Jesus through a miracle granted to her by God. God chose Mary above all women for this miraculous birth. The 19th Chapter of the Qur’an is named after Mary in honor of her role in expounding God’s plan to the people of Israel. Yet Christian’s believe that Mary was the mother of God’s incarnate son Jesus. How do we deal with this tightly held difference? I believe that our differences on such matters were never intended by God to cause divisions among us. When we believe that our religion, our holy texts, our histories, our way of worshipping and experiencing God is the only way then we disrespect the very nature and presence of the Holy One. If we cannot come to terms and embrace the teaching that God is truly the one God of all humanity, religions, nations and states then we are in for a conflict filled, violent 21st Century. From the very beginning of time, might God have been intent in creating diversity within the human race to literally force us to see and experience His presence in the presence of the “other”? It is clear that in Christianity, Islam and Judaism, God is a God of compassion. “And living well into compassion forms us into accepting the burdens, heartaches, disappointments and losses of others into our own life’s journey and experience. Compassion therefore must be seen as a statement of action and “doing” for both Christianity and Islam, rather than simply a platitude. Without action compassion has no meaning”!(11)
An interesting and shared strength of Christianity and Islam is their respective engagement with politics and religion. The oversimplifications of Islam by Christians as a negative, unnatural theocratic religion is balanced by the oversimplification of Christianity by Muslims as a religion that does not impress its theological values upon government. Both are misunderstandings of religion’s distinctive influence on governance and politics. “John Locke, 17th century philosopher wrote that religion and government must be separate from each other because that separation would benefit the creation of a peaceful society. This secular concept led Locke to also infer that a liberal state could not tolerate Catholics nor could it tolerate Muslims because of their confusion of politics and religion and the perverse dangers that were inherent in the mixing of both. Throughout most of the world there are secular governments in place. Where secularism has formally divided religion from politics there has too often been a reaction, especially within nations where Christianity is dominant. To counteract secularism and the separation of church and state, religious fundamentalism was born. Fundamentalism has always existed in a symbiotic relationship with secularism that is often experienced as cruel, violent and invasive. All too often aggressive secularism separating religion from politics is responded to violently by fundamentalists fearing annihilation, convinced that liberal or secular establishments are determined to destroy their basic religious way of life and discard basic religious values that they hold to be inerrant. This has been tragically apparent in the Middle East”.(12) But it has also been seen in the west, especially in America with the rise of political movements such as the religious value centered Tea Party movement and the National Rifle Association with its intense lobbying of the United States Congress and Supreme Court with its “God and Guns” philosophy. Christianity and Islam must move beyond misinformed stereotypes of each other’s role in engaging directly or indirectly with religion’s role of interacting with the political process of governments. Each in their own way embraces the role that religion plays in supporting governance for the common good of the commonwealth. At the same time they can also engage government in calling for decision making that does not violate shared Christian/Muslim core values.
Jon Meacham in his book “American Gospel, The Founding Fathers” wrote that in the United States, religion’s failure to be impacted by secularization was the result of the role that religion played in the formation of the new nation, following the American Revolution. The Declaration of Independence makes a distinction between public religion and civil religion. The distinction was best expressed by the French Philosopher Rousseau who pointed out that civil religion is manmade, while public religion is about the broad expanse of God’s role in creation, endowing humanity with clear and specific rights. This God acts within the larger context rather than just in the life of one particular race, religion or nation. This God is active in history.(13) This concept of public religion is the foundation upon which interreligious clerics and scholars must build upon to continue the essential work of interreligious dialogue. From this foundation must also come a strong commitment to build a template for action. It must be the role of Christians and Muslims to engage in the common embrace of public religion in order to become reconcilers, peacemakers and bridge builders between nations and states in conflict with one another. The timeless and shared values of compassion, of bearing the burden of others, of acceptance, of exercising forgiveness while always seeking reconciliation and peaceful coexistence are all within the collective theological embrace of Christianity and Islam.
In surveying the landscape of Christianity and Islam and what they collectively have been doing to work effectively with governments and civil society much on the surface has been happening. There have been countless interreligious dialogues, thousands of lectures given, hundreds upon hundreds of books and articles published and many high visibility global interreligious conferences held. Too often this work is under-reported by the domestic and global media. Too often the work is filled with directives about “what must be done” and “who must do it”. But there is too often in both religious traditions a vulnerability that comes from highly visible religious leaders actually physically doing what must be done to bring about constructive change through their witness.
In the United States as an example there is still a great deal of uneasiness within government to engage with Christian and Muslim religious leaders on significant issues of foreign policy and religion. Madeleine Albright former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations said; “many practitioners of foreign policy-including me-have sought to separate religion from world politics, to liberate logic from beliefs that transcend logic”.(14) Religious leaders often fear that to take action in a visible, tangible way will isolate them from being in favor with their governments and civil societies. There is also the fear that to step into a possibly controversial arena would jeopardize their hold within their own religious institutions leadership structure. Christianity is an example where such fear of taking action or a controversial stand is confirmed by a recent study conducted by the Pew Research Project, Religion in Public Life. The study clearly indicates that in the U.S. religion’s influence on public life is waning partly because of the timidity of religious institutions and their leader’s failure to engage and take a stand actively on issues confronting civil society and government. The failure to engage seems to be based on the institutional fear that to do so would endanger membership growth. But in reality the current Pew study shows that the reverse is in fact true.(15)
Christianity and Islam have at this moment in time a great opportunity to work together effectively with governments and civil societies currently in turmoil. They can begin to re-shape a culture of peace in a world too much torn apart by sectarian violence and political pilfering. Christianity and Islam can and must be the bridge builders of the 21st century. The pre-Socratic Greek philosopher Heraclitus said: “you can’t step into the same river twice.” Dr. Richard Bulliet, Professor of History at Columbia University uses this quote to opine that a nation’s historians always look down stream, never upstream and that such behavior reinforces the never ending flow of history and the past. He then goes on to say that policy makers and political scientists always look upstream and that as they do the cascading waters cover their faces so that they are unable to see the flow of the river downstream. The inability to merge the past experiences of history with the present realities of politics and policy never allow both disciplines to converge somewhere in the middle of the river to embrace a true understanding of the wholeness of the human journey. The respective religious traditions of Christianity and Islam must be builders of the bridge that allows current policy makers and political scientists, to join with the story tellers of human history and the past. To be connected by the bridge of religion, policy makers and political scientists can join with the keepers of human history in coming to terms with how best to see and then act in addressing the indiscriminant, sectarian violence of today. Religion has seen its influence diminished in the 21st century by our embrace of technology that too often denigrates the importance of personal relationships and face to face encounters with others. We have come to believe, economics, scientific advancements and the process of politics devoid of the complexities of threaded universal moral values would better our lives and empower us to embrace a rapidly changing world. But what is most important to grasp is that religion is the only 21st century weaver that can produce unity out of diversity
It is pure heresy that has given birth to human behavior sustained by fear and hate rather than by love of God and love of neighbor. It is this heresy that takes the unconditional love for all human beings by God, hijacks it, and shreds it into pieces of human interpretation that bear no resemblance to the core of the teachings of the one God of Christianity and Islam as we know it through Jesus and the prophet Muhammad.
The God of Christianity and Islam does not participate in, activate, empower or engage in the tragic loss of life generated by those who believe that they have the religious right to take another person’s life in the name of God. Human beings who claim to represent the true teachings of Christianity and Islam and who indiscriminately slaughter those who are “the other” have lost the most fundamental principle of their religious tradition’s theology. The current behavior of Christians and Muslims who claim to love God and then slaughter thousands are nothing more than quasi-religious bigots and terrorists who have no understanding of or feeling for the love of God. And it must be clearly understood by all, that God is not the cause of this behavior nor is it because of a perception held by some that God’s presence in the world has somehow vanished. It is rather that the current slaughter of innocents throughout the Middle East and the rest of the world is being done at the hands of persons who have lost their humanity by way of believing in a specter, a ghost they have crated in the image of God. A freeze dried God of wistful sentiment and fantasy. Theirs is a God created out of darkness, anger, fear and ignorance prompted by a warped theology built upon death and destruction, rather than life, love and compassion.(16) As a Christian I am reminded of the powerful words from the New Testament found in 1st John, 4:18 and following; “There is no fear in love, but perfect love casts out fear; for fear has to do with punishment, and whoever fears has not reached perfection in love. We love because he first loved us. Those who say; “I love God” and hate their brothers and sisters whom they have seen cannot love God whom they have not seen. The commandment we have from him is this; those who love God must love their brothers and sisters.
Leaders and followers of Christianity and Islam must come together at this time of great challenge to condemn those who have hijacked their religious traditions, their theology and their God, using them to fuel their own deluded, selfish political desires for power and control while abrogating the universal human rights of all they deem expendable and unfit to serve their warped purposes. In an address by Pope Benedict XVI at the First Seminar of the Catholic-Muslim Forum, in November of 2008, His Holiness said; “The discrimination and violence which even today religious people experience throughout the world, and the often violent persecutions to which they are subject, represent unacceptable and unjustifiable acts, all the more grave and deplorable when they are carried out in the name of God. God’s name can only be a name of peace and fraternity, justice and love. We are challenged to demonstrate, by our words and above all our deeds, that the message of our religions is unfailingly a message of harmony and mutual understanding. It is essential that we do so, lest we weaken the credibility and the effectiveness not only of our dialogue, but also of our religions themselves.”(17)
Potential next steps to follow are to be tied into the Plan of Action which will be developed, signed by all three Principals and then shuttled beyond this Third Christian Muslim Summit by appropriate media liaisons who are part of this Third Summit in both English and Arabic. It is critical that the Plan of Action be distributed throughout the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Africa and the West immediately following the Summit. It should also be adapted to appear “on-line” with an appropriate web heading and address. Religious scholars and leaders present at this Summit are strongly urged to share the Summit results and Plan of Action with their appropriate religious denominations in Christianity, with the broad scope of Sunni and Shi’a Muslim traditions and with those organizations that are identifiable that have been and continue to sponsor and support interreligious dialogue from the global perspective. Also, the results of this Third Summit and its authored Plan of Action should be distributed to appropriate government leaders charged with carrying out the foreign policies of their nations and states through appropriate diplomatic channels.
Considerations must also be developed to widen the participation at the IV Christian Muslim Summit to include participant scholars and rabbis from Judaism as well as representatives of the Indic and non-theistic philosophies.
The strength of this Christian Muslim Summit must ultimately rest on how religious scholars and leaders representing the broad religious beliefs of Christianity and Islam will name and then overcome their theological differences that have too often been divisive and unproductive to the future success of other interreligious dialogues. Such divisiveness must be overcome in order to end the inertia that has plagued the theological divisions between Christianity and Islam. The affirmation of commonly shared values and theological constructs emphasizing unity rather than disunity and dysfunction is the food for a hungry world.
This Third Summit must be able to affirm that war is a definition of human failure in resolving conflict and differences. And that indiscriminant violence, torture, violations of international human rights including the right to worship as one sees fit is a clarion call for religious freedom in the 21st century. To overcome theological differences that too often divide Christianity and Islam, the work of this Summit can provide a way forward for others of faith to overcome their divisiveness and can be a significant gift offered to the world and specifically to nations and states that are currently in conflict with one another. It can provide a model of how religion as the “bridge builder” can point the way for how nations and states can resolve their significant disagreements and hostilities and point the way to conflict resolution based on mutually embraced theological agreements and clear definitions. As religious scholars and clerics we must demonstrate by our actions and the production of an operative Plan of Action that political and theological differences do not divide us. But rather we are nurtured by a higher power, the power from the one God who knows us each by name and who reminds us that our differences do not divide but unite us to serve the tireless search for justice, freedom and peace for all of God’s people everywhere.
A colleague, Rabbi Jonathan Sacks wrote; “I believe that we are being summoned by God to see in the human other a face of the Divine Other. The test- so lamentably failed by the greater powers of the twentieth century- is to see the divine presence in the face of the stranger; to heed the cry of those who are disempowered in the age of unprecedented powers; who are hungry and poor and ignorant and uneducated, whose human potential is being denied the chance to be expressed. That is the faith of Abraham and Sarah, from whom the great faiths Judaism, Christianity and Islam trace their spiritual or actual ancestry. That is the faith of one who, though he called himself but dust and ashes, asked of God himself, Shall the judge of all the earth not do justice? We are not gods, but we are summoned by God-to do His work of love and justice and compassion and peace.
If we cherish our own, then we will understand the value of others. We may regard ours as a diamond and another faith as a ruby, but we know that both are precious stones. But if faith is a mere burden, not only will we not value ours. Neither will we value the faith of someone else. We will see both as equally useless. Difference does not diminish; it enlarges the spheres of human possibilities”.(18)
The Right Reverend John Bryson Chane D.D.
Eighth Bishop, Diocese of Washington, DC
October 22, 2014
1) John Bryson Chane, Jerusalem, Holy City in Crisis. The Chautauqua Institution, NY, August 2012. Public Lecture
2)Pew Research, Religion and Public Life, December 18th 2012
3)Philip Jenkins, the Next Christendom; The Coming of Global Christianity, NY. Random House, 2002
4)Sidney H. Griffith, The Bible in Arabic, Princeton NJ., 2013
7)The Royal Aaal-al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, A Common Word Between Us and You, 2009
8) The Holy Qur’an. Al-Isklas 112:1-2
9) The Gospel of Mark 12:30-31, The Oxford Annotated Bible, NRSV, NY
10) Sidney H. Griffith, the Bible in Arabic
11) John Bryson Chane, Reflections on Compassion, Washington National
Cathedral Archives, Washington, DC, September, 2011
12) Karen Armstrong, the Myth of Religious Violence, Bodley Head, London,
13) Jon Meacham, American Gospel: God the Founding Fathers, and the Making of a Nation, NY. Random House 2007
14) Madeline Albright, the Mighty and the Almighty, Reflections on America, God and World Affairs. NY. Harper, 2006
15) Pew Research, Religion and Public Life Project, Public Sees Religion’s Influence Waning
16) John Bryson Chane, Washington National Archives, 2011
17) Pope Benedict XVI, Address to Participants in the First Seminar of the Catholic-Muslim Forum, Rome, November 6, 2008 2008
18) Jonathan Sacks, the Dignity of Difference, How To Avoid The Clash of Civilizations, Continuim, London, 2002
A GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
John Bryson Chane, Diplomacy and Religion: Seeking Common Interests and Background in a Dynamically Changing and Turbulent World, Washington DC, the Brookings Project on U.S. Relationships with the Islamic World, U.S. Islamic World Forum Papers, November, 2013
John L. Esposito and Dalia Mogahead, Who Speaks for Islam. What a Billion Muslims Really Think, NY, Gallup Press, 2007
Salem Ben Nassar Al Ismaily, The Messengers of Monotheism, A Common Heritage of Christians, Jews and Muslims, Indianapolis, Indiana, Dog Ear Publishing, 2003
Philp Jenkins, the Great and Holy War, How World War I, Became a Religious Crusade, NY Harper One, 2014
Philip Jenkins, Laying Down the Sword. Why We Can’t Ignore the Bible’s Violent Verses. NY, Harper One, 2011
John B. Judas, Genesis, Truman, American Jews, and the Origins of the Arab Israeli Conflict, NY Farrar and Giroux, 2014
Bernard Lewis, the Crisis of Islam, Holy War and Unholy Terror, NY Random House, 2003
Marwan Muasher, the Second Arab Awakening and the Battle for Pluralism, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2014
Shibley Telhami, the World Through Arab Eyes, NY, Basic Books, 2013
John Esposito, the Divinity of Islam, New York Times, October, 2014
M.A. Muqtedar Khan, Muslim Scholars Must Break the Theological Claims of Extremism, NY Times, October 10, 2014
Vinnie Rotondaro, Defending Christians is About Defending Goodness and Humanity, Advocates Say, National Catholic Reporter, Washington, DC, September 23, 2014
Tad Stahnke, Human Rights First, Testimony before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, Subcommittee on National Security, September 18th, 2014